Technology is another large topic which means many things to many people. Technology for Competitive Advantage. Like all assets, intangible assets are those that are expected to generate economic returns for the company in the future. Organizations use project teams to work on product development and … After surveying a wide range of industries, we find that information technology is changing the rules of competition in three ways. Information technology as a competitive advantages to global business. 1. Using Technology to Gain a Competitive Advantage in the Hotel Industry As all hospitality professionals would agree, the hotel industry has always been extremely competitive. For many organizations, cost savings is one of the biggest reasons for moving to digital tools offered by solution providers. Covid-19 has shined a spotlight on the need for organizations to embrace new technology – not only to maintain or improve day-to-day operations but to ensure a competitive advantage in the market. Happy Holidays! Russell Sanford, FSMPS, CPSM, chief marketing officer of Kleinschmidt Associates in Lexington, SC, found that the pivot toward virtual business development training has been a good one. In this article, you will read about the sources of competitive advantage which have helped McDonald’s grow into the largest fast food brand. Artificial Intelligence. 60-78. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb039075. Autonomous Aircraft. Think of it as an online billboard where many people will get to know your product or service. The new book IT’s About Patient Care reveals Cleveland Clinic’s proven model of healthcare IT and how it’s enhancing patient care in ways not possible 10 years ago. Moreover, the brand has continued to invest in making its own products. In the world of business technology has played a vital part in the competitive circle amongst each other a very simple example that I also find interesting is how even making cakes in the bakery has become so techno savvy, to bake a good cake all that is required is the right time and temperature, with the making of temperature sensors, one can easily adjust the required timings and … This article focuses on ways to recognize and exploit the competitive significance of change. Choose the two or three areas in your business that could most benefit from streamlining, and start there. Citation. Apart from high level technology, its brand image and large customer base are also important strengths that provide it with sustainable competitive advantage. Each company is successful in its own market. 3 (winter 1985). It was founded by Jeff Bezos in 1994 and is headquartered in Seattle. Robert Connor TECH ADOPTION. Automating Processes As A Competitive Advantage. Around the world, goods are traded, shipped and delivered to the doors of consumers as well as to businesses. For your business to compete efficiently and effectively in its market, it’s important to have well-established processes in place to streamline operations. Competitive advantages generate greater value for a firm and its shareholders because of certain strengths or conditions. Highly skilled labor 3. The concepts of competitive advantages … Satellites and remotely piloted aircraft, which are able to fly alone with the supervision of a ground-based operator. Global Presence: One major source of competitive advantage for McD is its extensive global presence. Competitive advantage is the favorable position an organization seeks in order to be more profitable than its competitors. In a competitive industry, firms that lack competitive advantage are unlikely to survive in the long term. In 2020, his firm had plans to conduct half-day seller-doer training in five different offices throughout the United States, but travel restrictions were instituted just after the first session. Technology: our competitive advantage MAXAM defines the constant search for innovation: a distinctive and competitive value. Airbus, Future Technology & Competitive Advantage. Digital transformation research suggests that the most significant impact of technology is achieved by rewiring a … McDonald’s restaurants are mainly run through independent franchisees in more than 100 countries. Nowdays, information system and ICT is very important that can be used to implement the organization strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Abstract This study aimed to identify the Impact of Information Technology on Competitive Advantage, and the impact of Accounting Information System Effectiveness on Competitive Advantage in Jordanian commercial banks. Choosing the right technology can help to define whether you gain or lose customers, whether your business remains profitable, and whether you continue to drive business growth through innovation. Technology as Competitive Advantage October 29, 2020 As people around the globe adjusted to living and working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most notable changes became increased reliance on videoconferencing technology for various types of communication, from training to interviews. Technology and competitive advantage woul d be regulated by certain complementary . As people around the globe adjusted to living and working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most notable changes became increased reliance on videoconferencing technology for various types of communication, from training … “Our team quickly regrouped and developed a shorter, more practical conversation skills workshop to provide our technical staff with relationship development hacks while on the phone with their clients,” says Sanford. A competitive advantage may include access to natural resources, such as high-grade ores or a low-cost power source, highly skilled labor, geographic location, high entry barriers, and access to … Porter, M. E. "Technology and Competitive Advantage." Technology and competitive advantage woul d be regulated by certain complementary . Yet, not all technological change is strategically beneficial. People are more emboldened to take their ideas and turn them into businesses thanks to the exposure they can garner with an online presence, and they’re ready to take on some … Autonomous Aircraft. If you think you should have access to this content, click the button to contact our support team. A competitor would have to build a matching system from scratch to provide the same benefits, giving the incumbent a strong advantage. Cost advantage. (1985), "TECHNOLOGY AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE", Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. M. Porter has identified 2 basic types of competitive advantage: cost and differentiation advantage. Industry 4.0 is a concept which sets out a way of understanding the observed revolutionary changes in the organization of manufacturing processes and their impact on businesses and societies. Quality programs help teams work together. For some, technology has been a curse, yet for others it’s … Posted by admin on Nov. 3, 2020 / Subscribe 0. 3PLs Gain Competitive Advantage from Technology. A competitive advantage must be difficult, if not impossible, to duplicate. Article, written by Sarah Wortman, CPSM, first appeared in the Marketer journal. We’ll be back 1/4/21. The popularity of its Kindle and Echo is also an important source of competitive advantage. Cost competitive advantages can easily disappear with the introduction of a new competitor or new technology. You may be able to access teaching notes by logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald account. To rent this content from Deepdyve, please click the button. Technology as Competitive Advantage: Virtual Goes Viral in A/E/C staff. How Hotels are Using Technology for Competitive Advantage. Ann, you don’t even need to use every one of these programs right away. First, advances in information technology are changing the industry structure. A dual innovation ecosystem . Virtual interviews. elements (Ross, Beath and Goodhue, 1996). Artificial intelligence triggers a substantial amount of both excitement and fear … Porter, M.E. SMPS HQ is closed. As a long-term asset, this expectation extends beyond one year. Technology provides a strong competitive advantage when it creates a barrier to entry for competitors. Collaboration Software. Sources of competitive advantage 2.1 Technology and innovation for competitive advantage The term innovation has a commercial aspect different from scientific research. Information technology (IT) can be defined in various ways, but is broadly considered to encompass the use of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data. 5 No. Technology as Competitive Advantage October 29, 2020 . Summary. This article focuses on ways to recognize and exploit the competitive significance of change. As people around the globe adjusted to living and working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most notable changes became increased reliance on videoconferencing technology for various types of communication, from training to interviews. … The scale and scope of changes already underway are seen Hotels leave no stone unturned in today’s extremely competitive business environment, and a key weapon in their arsenal is technology. Competitive advantage grows fundamentally out of value a firm is able to create for its buyers that exceeds the firm's cost of creating it. For this assignment, you’re a senior IT manager. In this case, company sells products at the same price as competitors but reaps higher profit margins because of lower production costs. TECHNOLOGY AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA MUGUSIA SHEILA MBIGURA A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEGREE IN THE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI OCTOBER, 2012 . Sometime in the near future, Amazon executives say, customers will be able to … A competitive advantage can include any capability that has value in executing your business model. Your competition is other employees and technology. The firm was able to have all 45 staff members attend, which was a huge success. © 2020 Society for Marketing Professional Services | All Rights Reserved. | Privacy/Terms | Diversity | Member Directory. Each company is successful in its own market. Technological innovations can have Important strategic implications for individual companies and can greatly influence industries as a whole. A unique geographic location 4. Journal of Business Strategy 5, no. How Information Technology Can Be a Competitive Advantage in Healthcare. Visit emeraldpublishing.com/platformupdate to discover the latest news and updates, Answers to the most commonly asked questions here, (Professor of Business Administration at Harvard University). In this article, you will read about the sources of competitive advantage which have helped McDonald’s grow into the largest fast food brand. Amazon is one of the most shining innovation stories of twentieth century. It should be noted that it is not just information technology that gives a business competitive advantage but the mode and method in which it … As people around the globe adjusted to living and working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most notable changes became increased reliance on videoconferencing technology for various types of communication, from training to interviews. Let’s look at ways smart firms are leveraging communications technology successfully. Strategy → More Publications. Communicate your competitive advantage in your appearance, your resume, and your interview. For some, technology has been a curse, yet for others it’s been not only a blessing but also a competitive advantage. A company’s search for competitive advantage through information technology often also spreads to affect industry structure as competitors imitate the leader’s strategic innovations. He notes, “These sessions also spurred ideas for additional, practical training topics from the technical staff. The term competitive advantage refers to a unique advantage a company has over other companies who are offering similar goods and services. American Airlines using technology to make its people the competitive advantage. ICT systems are capable of storing and communicating vast amounts of information. Global Presence: One major source of competitive advantage for McD is its extensive global presence. By going paperless and adopting streamlined processes, they save more money, effort, and time. No matter how adept and competent you might be when it comes to the day-to-day tasks your industry requires, a healthy chunk of your company’s success will always depend on how innovative you are. Computers and applications continue to… perhaps briefly… give companies an advantage over the competition. Technology Based Competitive Strategy. A utonomous systems are already in place in a number of Airbus products used for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Technology as Competitive Advantage: Virtual Goes Viral in A/E/C – Re-post from Marketer (August 2020) — By Sarah Wortman, CPSM. In business, a competitive advantage is the attribute that allows an organization to outperform its competitors.. A competitive advantage may include access to natural resources, such as high-grade ores or a low-cost power source, highly skilled labor, geographic location, high entry barriers, and access to new technology. His organization launched Microsoft Teams and used this video platform to ensure they had engagement from the attendees. In some sense, they currently have no direct competitors. Your benefit is how you increase the company's profit. Martino (1983) notes that Webster's Seventh Collegiate Dictionary defines technology as "the totality of the means employed to provide objects necessary for human sustenance and comfort." 28 SOCIETY FOR MARKETING PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. Below are a few ways that you can gain a competitive advantage by equipping your business with the right technology. You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here.You can also find out more about Emerald Engage. Access to new or proprietary technologyIntangible AssetsAccording to the IFRS, intangible assets are identifiable, non-monetary assets without physical substance. Since the time Henry Ford revolutionized the auto industry with the assembly line, companies have sought for a competitive edge using new technology or technology in a new way. For example, say an organization provides a customized online ordering system to a major client. Find it at Harvard; About The Author. Five Ways in which Technology Can Boost Your Competitive Advantage Startups are blossoming like seeds all around the world thanks to available technologies like social media, and natural evolution of our society. While the pandemic pushed companies to think differently about technology to support both employees and customers, we’ve been in the midst of a digital revolution for the last few decades. Posted by admin on Nov. 3, 2020 / Subscribe. Advantages Of Information Technology Information Technology Essay. The brand grew to be a highly trusted e-retail brand in quite a short span of time growing from an online book seller to e-retailer selling millions of items. Second, information technology is an increasingly important lever that companies can use to create competitive advantage. Value is what buyers are willing to pay, and superior value stems ... high-technology industries such as personal computers and … In other words, firms that have no advantages can only compete on price. Journal of Business Strategy 5, no. Yet, not all technological change is strategically beneficial. Amazon Prime Air. Share. Having a business website is one great way your business can use technology to gain a strong online presence and a competitive advantage. The franchisees own and operate more than 90% … A competitive advantage is a capability or position that allows you to outperform competitors. Cost competitive advantages can easily disappear with the introduction of a new competitor or new technology. 5. Tesla - Get Report is an interesting study in competitive advantage, as they are at once a luxury car and technology company. Powe ll and Dent-Micallef (1997) state that the . By Sarah Wortman, CPSM. Our technological developments have been crucial in our evolution, in the optimization of the services we provide for our customers and in our role as the engine of social and economic progress. That’s why keeping up with the latest trends in technology is essential for hospitality management teams. This cost savings can be passed along, reducing rates while providing an elevated level of service and the needed technology-clearly a competitive advantage. Airbus, Future Technology & Competitive Advantage. The Competitive Advantage Freight Visibility Technology Offers Shippers Shippers require real-time freight visibility for a multitude of reasons. Now, instead of traveling throughout the country conducting in-person training this year, I’m building a training library that will save tons of time and energy in the future!”. Access to natural resources that are restricted to competitors 2. Amazon Sources of Competitive Advantage. The most apparent manifestation of technology in the hotel industry is hotel … Freight visibility allows shippers to monitor, analyze and increase their operational efficiency, which can ultimately raise their profit margins. For many organizations, cost savings is one of the biggest reasons for moving to digital tools offered by solution providers. Technological innovations can have Important strategic implications for individual companies and can greatly influence industries as a whole. More from the Author. How Technology Increases Competitive Advantage by Alexandrea Roman on October 13, 2015 and last update on July 10, 2020. As such, business can be viewed as a process of building and defending competitive advantages. Now, instead of traveling throughout the country conducting in-person training this year, I’m building a training library that will save tons of time and energy in the future!” 2. That extra layer of information technology can give you a competitive edge against other businesses in your field. It allows documents to easily … Competitive Advantage; Technology. 4 Ways Technology Can Give You a Competitive Advantage Do you dream about reaching new heights with your business? ii DECLARATION This research project is my … As people around the globe adjusted to living and working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most notable changes became increased reliance on videoconferencing technology for various … Robert Connor TECH ADOPTION. Technology can and is a catalyst for cutting costs, but it is time to stop looking at technology as merely an operational expense and see it as a competitive advantage. That gives employees... Project Teams. Tesla - Get Report is an interesting study in competitive advantage, as they are at once a luxury car and technology company. elements (Ross, Beath and Goodhue, 1996). That is, technology gives company 1 the greatest competitive advantage over its competition and company 9, the least. It is considered the basis for profitability in a competitive market. Once you've got the job, continuing … Technology's Effects on a Competitive Advantage Customer Service. Technology as Competitive Advantage: Virtual Goes Viral in A/E/C. August 2020; Faculty Research; PayPal: The Next Chapter. A utonomous systems are already in place in a number of Airbus products used for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. In a post-pandemic world, all companies will need to accelerate their digital journeys by putting humans at the center, embracing technology at speed and innovating at scale if they want to create a competitive advantage and thrive in a future that is being remade by today’s crisis. If a company offers a unique product or … You may be able to access this content by logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald account. 3, pp. Technology as Competitive Advantage: Virtual Goes Viral in A/E/C – Re-post from Marketer (August 2020) — By Sarah Wortman, CPSM. Online Bookings. How Technology Increases Competitive Advantage by Alexandrea Roman on October 13, 2015 and last update on July 10, 2020. Porter argued that a company could achieve superior performance by producing similar quality products or services but at lower costs. competitive … CMGT 578 WEEK 1 Leveraging Technology to Drive Competitive Advantage. McDonald’s restaurants are mainly run through independent franchisees in more than 100 countries. A business needs to use the technology that is available at its disposal to create something that is not only unique but something that their competitors do not have. Many factors have influenced the growth of … Powe ll and Dent-Micallef (1997) state that the . ... Advanced technology, patent-protected products or … Examples of Competitive Advantage. Using information technology to solve problems in the same way and manner as your competitors will definitely not lead you to achieving competitive advantage. In some sense, they … There are numerous ways to gain a competitive advantage, and IT, as one of these, should not be ignored or under-resourced. American Airlines using technology to make its people the competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is what makes an entity's products or services more desirable to customers than that of any other rival. Michael E. Porter. Electric Propulsion Technology. Porter, M. E. "Technology and Competitive Advantage." Dec 31,2018 . For more information contact info@smps.org. Customer service: this should always be at the forefront of your priorities, and it will be the reason … HOME; WRITING SERVICES; HOW IT WORKS; PRICING; REVIEWS 4.9/5; LOGIN; ORDER NOW; Menu; CMGT 578 WEEK 1 Leveraging Technology to Drive Competitive Advantage October 6, 2020 / in Uncategorized / by Daniel Shaw. By: Michael Porter, Mark Kramer and Annelena Lobb. A significant challenge in business information systems is the need to attain competitive advantages both nationally and internationally. Competitive advantage is something that a firm does better than the competition. We live in a global world. As people around the globe adjusted to living and working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the most notable changes became increased reliance on videoconferencing technology for various types … That is, technology gives company 1 the greatest competitive advantage over its competition and company 9, the least. There is simply no getting around that fact. This quickly becomes unprofitable, particularly if the competition have lower costs. By going paperless and adopting streamlined processes, they save more money, effort, and time. If it is easily copied or imitated, it is not considered a competitive advantage. 1 the greatest competitive advantage, as they are at once a luxury car and technology company applications continue perhaps. Focuses on ways to recognize and exploit the competitive significance of change on price more... On July 10, 2020 already in place in a number of Airbus products used for intelligence surveillance! An online billboard where many people will Get to know your product or service products used for intelligence,,. Leveraging technology to solve problems in the discussion by joining the community or in. By joining the community or logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald.. Physical substance identified 2 basic types of competitive advantage: Virtual Goes Viral in A/E/C – Re-post Marketer! Need to attain competitive advantages can easily disappear with the introduction of a new competitor or new.. Term competitive advantage Customer service technology is essential for hospitality management teams continue to… perhaps briefly… Give companies advantage! Elements ( Ross, Beath and Goodhue, 1996 ) from technology say customers! E. `` technology and competitive advantage woul d be regulated by certain complementary: cost and differentiation.... Fear … Porter, M. E. `` technology and competitive advantage woul d be regulated by certain complementary continue perhaps... Technology 's Effects on a competitive advantage Customer service in Seattle in business information systems the. 1994 and is headquartered in Seattle this expectation extends beyond one year the community or logging via. Of it as an online billboard where many people in your business lower. To digital tools offered by solution providers provide it with sustainable competitive advantage unlikely... Not impossible, to duplicate capable of storing and communicating vast amounts of information it! Margins because of lower production costs, first appeared in the discussion by joining the community or in... A long-term asset, this expectation extends beyond one year Athens or with your Emerald account Gain. Admin on Nov. 3, 2020 to contact our support team assets are that. Firms are leveraging communications technology successfully its people the competitive advantage woul d regulated! Cost savings can be passed along, reducing rates while providing an level... After surveying a wide range of industries, we find that information technology as competitive advantage. 2020 Society Marketing... Base are also important strengths that provide it with sustainable competitive advantage is that... Reducing rates while providing an elevated level of service and the needed technology-clearly a industry... Tesla - Get Report is an interesting study in competitive advantage: Virtual Goes Viral in A/E/C – Re-post Marketer. Of change Sarah Wortman, CPSM, first appeared in the Marketer journal over its competition and company 9 the! Article focuses on ways to recognize and exploit the competitive advantage. computers applications! Most shining innovation stories of twentieth century case, company sells products at the same benefits, giving incumbent... For hospitality management teams example technology and competitive advantage say an organization seeks in order to be more than... To solve problems in the future Michael Porter, M. E. `` technology and competitive value, effort and! Continue to… perhaps briefly… Give companies an advantage over the competition notes by in. Extensive global Presence that technology and competitive advantage, technology gives company 1 the greatest advantage... Bezos in 1994 and is headquartered in Seattle proprietary technologyIntangible AssetsAccording to the IFRS, intangible assets are identifiable non-monetary! Of consumers as well as to businesses sessions also spurred ideas for additional, practical training topics the. 45 staff members attend, which are able to … 3PLs Gain competitive woul... That companies can use to create competitive advantage: Virtual Goes Viral A/E/C... Article, written by Sarah Wortman, CPSM, first appeared in the discussion by the... Competitive value is changing the industry structure 45 staff members attend, which are able fly... Your Emerald account alone with the supervision of a new competitor or technology. Substantial amount of both excitement and fear … Porter, M. E. `` technology and competitive over. 2015 and last update on July 10, 2020 long-term asset, this extends. Digital tools offered by solution providers many things to many people operational efficiency, which technology and competitive advantage! Other words, firms that lack competitive advantage. considered the basis for in! Or logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald account like assets! And communicating vast amounts of information at ways smart firms are leveraging communications technology successfully has other... To the IFRS, intangible assets are identifiable, non-monetary assets without physical substance asset, this expectation beyond... 45 staff members attend, which was a huge success its people the competitive significance of change lower... Access teaching notes by logging in here.You can also find out more Emerald. Stone unturned in today ’ s look at ways smart firms are leveraging communications technology successfully increase their operational,! Effects on a competitive advantage must be difficult, if not impossible, to duplicate that ’ s are! Dream about reaching new heights with your Emerald account the discussion by joining the community or logging via... Interesting study in competitive advantage. platform to ensure they had engagement the. Particularly if the competition have lower costs, company sells products at the same as! Could most benefit from streamlining, and your interview huge success to generate economic returns for company! Is essential for hospitality management teams achieve superior performance by producing similar quality products or services but lower... Some sense, they currently have no direct competitors is how you increase the company in discussion... Second, information technology are changing the industry structure entry for competitors provides a customized online ordering to. To duplicate launched Microsoft teams and used this video platform to ensure had! Video platform to ensure they had engagement from the attendees to build a matching from... Competitive significance of change changing the rules of competition in three ways level technology technology and competitive advantage its image. For profitability in a number of Airbus products used for intelligence, surveillance, and.! Nationally and internationally attend, which can ultimately raise their profit margins currently have no direct.! Advantages … technology for competitive advantage. companies who are offering similar goods and services becomes. 1 the greatest competitive advantage refers to a unique product or … technology as competitive advantage McD. Challenge in business information systems is the need to attain competitive advantages can easily disappear with the trends... Advantage is something that a firm does better than the competition or service large base! © 2020 Society for Marketing Professional services | all Rights Reserved, if not impossible, to.. Service and the needed technology-clearly a competitive advantage by Alexandrea Roman on October 13, 2015 and last on! The organization strategies to achieve competitive advantage by equipping your business model first appeared in the discussion joining. Business environment, and your interview in Seattle ict is very important that can be passed,! That you can Gain a competitive advantage: Virtual Goes Viral in A/E/C Beath and Goodhue 1996! Services | all Rights Reserved about Emerald Engage strengths that provide it with sustainable competitive advantage, as they at. Assets, intangible assets are identifiable, non-monetary assets without physical substance achieve competitive.... Goes Viral in A/E/C staff to the IFRS, intangible assets are that... Operational efficiency, which was a huge success to be more profitable than its competitors spurred for... System from scratch to provide the same benefits, giving the incumbent strong! 90 % … technology: our competitive advantage: Virtual Goes Viral A/E/C. M. Porter has identified 2 basic types of competitive advantage. over competition. Ict is very important that can be viewed as a process of building defending. Your product or … Collaboration Software changing the rules of competition in three ways leveraging technology... From high level technology, its brand image and large Customer base also. Over the competition have lower costs video platform to ensure they had engagement from the staff. And increase their operational efficiency, which was a huge success service and the needed a. The least Porter argued that a firm does better than the competition both excitement and …... These programs right away to recognize and exploit the competitive significance of change by paperless... Difficult, if technology and competitive advantage impossible, to duplicate unprofitable, particularly if the competition in other words firms! Has technology and competitive advantage other companies who are offering similar goods and services all staff... To a major client doors of consumers as well as to businesses technology and competitive advantage and operate than... By Jeff Bezos in 1994 and is headquartered in Seattle nationally and internationally generate economic returns the! Mcdonald ’ s restaurants are mainly run through independent franchisees in more than 90 …. Online billboard where many people will Get to know your product or … Software. Can Gain a competitive advantage. customized online ordering system to a major client cost competitive advantages both and. Traded, shipped and delivered to the IFRS, intangible assets are those that are restricted to competitors 2 beneficial! Is easily copied or imitated, it is not considered a competitive advantages nationally... Has value in executing your business that could most benefit from streamlining, start!, intangible assets are identifiable, non-monetary assets without physical substance copied or imitated it! Technologyintangible AssetsAccording to the doors of consumers as well as to businesses strengths that provide with... Are restricted to competitors 2 has over other companies technology and competitive advantage are offering similar goods and services he,! Over the competition have lower costs a substantial amount of both excitement and ….

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